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Pleurotus ostreatus
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Pleurotaceae
Genus: Pleurotus

P. ostreatus

Binomial name
Pleurotus ostreatus

(Jacq. ex Fr.) Phường.Kumm. (1871)[1]

Pleurotus ostreatus

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Mycological characteristics

Gills on hymenium
Cap is offset
Hymenium is decurrent
Stipe is bare

Spore print is white
Ecology is saprotrophic
Edibility is choice

Pleurotus ostreatus, the oyster mushroom, oyster fungus, hiratake, or pearl oyster mushroom is a common edible mushroom.[2] It is one of the more commonly sought wild mushrooms, though it can also be cultivated on straw and other truyền thông.


The mushroom has a broad, người hâm mộ or oyster-shaped cap spanning 2–30 centimetres (3411+34 inches);[3] natural specimens range from white to tướng gray or tan to tướng dark-brown; the margin is inrolled when young, and is smooth and often somewhat lobed or wavy. The flesh is white, firm, and varies in thickness due to tướng stipe arrangement. The gills of the mushroom are white to tướng cream, and descend on the stalk if present. If sánh, the stipe is off-center with a lateral attachment to tướng wood. The spore print of the mushroom is white to tướng lilac-gray, and best viewed on dark background. The mushroom's stipe is often absent. When present, it is short and thick. It has the bittersweet aroma of benzaldehyde (which is also characteristic of bitter almonds).[4]

P. ostreatus is a carnivorous fungus, preying on nematodes by using a calcium-dependent toxin that paralyzes the prey within minutes of tương tác, causing necrosis and formation of a slurry to tướng facilitate ingestion as a protein-rich food source.[5]

  • Oyster mushrooms on a tree

    Oyster mushrooms on a tree

  • Details of the gill structure

    Details of the gill structure

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    As presented in a Korean grocery store

    As presented in a Korean grocery store

Similar species[edit]

It is related to tướng the similarly cultivated Pleurotus eryngii (king oyster mushroom).[citation needed] Other similar species include Pleurocybella porrigens, Hohenbuehelia petaloides, and the hairy-capped Phyllotopsis nidulans.[6]

Omphalotus nidiformis is a toxic lookalike found in nước Australia and nhật bản. In North America, the toxic muscarine-containing Omphalotus olivascens (the western jack-o'-lantern mushroom) and Clitocybe dealbata (the ivory funnel mushroom) both bear a resemblance to tướng P. ostreatus.


Both the Latin and common names refer to tướng the shape of the fruiting body toàn thân.[2] The Latin pleurotus (side-ear) refers to tướng the sideways growth of the stem with respect to tướng the cap, while the Latin ostreatus (and the English common name, oyster) refers to tướng the shape of the cap which resembles the bivalve of the same name.[2] The reference to tướng oyster may also derive from the slippery texture of the mushroom.[2] The name grey oyster mushroom may be used for P. ostreatus.[7]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The oyster mushroom is widespread in many temperate and subtropical forests throughout the world, although it is absent from the Pacific Northwest of North America, being replaced by P. pulmonarius and P. populinus.[8] It is a saprotroph that acts as a primary decomposer of wood, especially deciduous trees, and beech trees in particular.[9] It is a white-rot wood-decay fungus.

The standard oyster mushroom can grow in many places, but some other related species, such as the branched oyster mushroom, grow only on trees. They may be found all year round in the UK.

While this mushroom is often seen growing on dying hardwood trees, it only appears to tướng be acting saprophytically, rather phàn nàn parasitically. As the tree dies of other causes, P. ostreatus grows on the rapidly increasing mass of dead and dying wood. They actually benefit the forest by decomposing the dead wood, returning vital elements and minerals to tướng the ecosystem in a sườn usable to tướng other plants and organisms.[2] Oyster mushrooms bioaccumulate lithium.[10]


Although predatory behavior on nematodes has evolved independently in all major fungal lineages,[5] P. ostreatus is one of the few known carnivorous mushrooms.[citation needed] Its mycelia can kill and digest nematodes, which is believed to tướng be a way in which the mushroom obtains nitrogen.[5]


Agricultural cultivation of oyster mushrooms on straw

Commercial cultivation of this mushroom first began in Germany as a subsistence measure during World War I,[11] and it is now grown commercially around the world for food.


The oyster mushroom is a choice edible,[3] and is a delicacy in Japanese, Korean and Chinese cuisine. It is frequently served on its own, in soups, stuffed, or in stir-fry recipes with soy sauce. Oyster mushrooms may be used in sauces, such as oyster sauce. The mushroom's taste has been described as mild with a slight odor similar to tướng anise. Oyster mushrooms are used in the Czech and Slovak contemporary cuisine in soups and stews in a similar fashion to tướng meat.[12] The oyster mushroom is best when picked young; as the mushroom ages, the flesh becomes tough and the flavor becomes acrid and unpleasant.[13]

Some toxic Lentinellus species are similar in appearance, but have gills with jagged edges and finely haired caps.[14]

Other uses[edit]

The pearl oyster mushroom is also used to tướng create mycelium bricks, mycelium furniture, and leather-like products.[citation needed]

Oyster mushrooms can also be used industrially for mycoremediation purposes. Oyster mushrooms were used to tướng treat soil that had been polluted with diesel oil. The mushroom was able to tướng convert 95% of the oil into non-toxic compounds. [15] P. ostreatus is also capable of growing upon and degrading oxo-biodegradable plastic bags;[16] it can also contribute to tướng the degradation of green polyethylene.[17]

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See also[edit]

  • Medicinal fungi
  • List of Pleurotus species


  1. ^ Kummer, Phường. (1871). Der Führer in die Pilzkunde (1st ed.).
  2. ^ a b c d e Alan Davidson, Tom Jaine (2014). "Oyster mushroom". In Jaine, Tom (ed.). Oyster mushroom; In: The Oxford Companion to tướng Food (3rd Ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780199677337.001.0001. ISBN 9780199677337.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  3. ^ a b Miller Jr., Orson K.; Miller, Hope H. (2006). North American Mushrooms: A Field Guide to tướng Edible and Inedible Fungi. Guilford, CN: FalconGuide. p. 142. ISBN 978-0-7627-3109-1.
  4. ^ Beltran-Garcia, Miguel J.; Estarron-Espinosa, Mirna; Ogura, Tetsuya (1997). "Volatile Compounds Secreted by the Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)and Their Antibacterial Activities". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 45 (10): 4049. doi:10.1021/jf960876i.
  5. ^ a b c Lee, Ching-Han; Chang, Han-Wen; Yang, Ching-Ting; Wali, Niaz; Shie, Jiun-Jie; Hsueh, Yen-Ping (2020-03-02). "Sensory cilia as the Achilles heel of nematodes when attacked by carnivorous mushrooms". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 117 (11): 6014–6022. Bibcode:2020PNAS..117.6014L. doi:10.1073/pnas.1918473117. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 7084146. PMID 32123065.
  6. ^ Davis, R. Michael; Sommer, Robert; Menge, John A. (2012). Field Guide to tướng Mushrooms of Western North America. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 132–133. ISBN 978-0-520-95360-4. OCLC 797915861.
  7. ^ Hall, Ian R. (April 2010). "Growing mushrooms: the commercial reality" (PDF). Lifestyle Farmer: 42–45. Retrieved 26 January 2012.
  8. ^ Trudell, S.; Ammirati, J. (2009). Mushrooms of the Pacific Northwest. Timber Press Field Guides. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press. p. 134. ISBN 978-0-88192-935-5.
  9. ^ Phillips, Roger (2006), Mushrooms. Pub. McMilan, ISBN 0-330-44237-6. Phường. 266.
  10. ^ de Assunção et al. 2012, pp. 1123–1127.
  11. ^ Eger, G., Eden, G. & Wissig, E. (1976). Pleurotus ostreatus – breeding potential of a new cultivated mushroom. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 47: 155–163.
  12. ^ "Slovak oyster mushroom recipes". Ringier Axel Springer SK. Retrieved 2015-07-21.
  13. ^ "How To Harvest Oyster Mushrooms?". Forest Wildlife. 16 August 2022. Retrieved 2022-08-16.
  14. ^ Davis, R. Michael; Sommer, Robert; Menge, John A. (2012). Field Guide to tướng Mushrooms of Western North America. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-520-95360-4. OCLC 797915861.
  15. ^ Rhodes, Christopher J. (January 2014). "Mycoremediation (bioremediation with fungi) – growing mushrooms to tướng clean the earth". Chemical Speciation & Bioavailability. 26 (3): 196–198. doi:10.3184/095422914X14047407349335. ISSN 0954-2299. S2CID 97081821.
  16. ^ da Luz JM, Paes SA, Nunes MD, domain authority Silva Mde C, Kasuya MC. Degradation of oxo-biodegradable plastic by Pleurotus ostreatus. PLoS One. 2013 Aug 15;8(8):e69386. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069386. PMID: 23967057; PMCID: PMC3744528.
  17. ^ da Luz JM, Paes SA, Ribeiro KV, Mendes IR, Kasuya MC. Degradation of Green Polyethylene by Pleurotus ostreatus. PLoS One. năm ngoái Jun 15;10(6):e0126047. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0126047. PMID: 26076188; PMCID: PMC4468114.

Further reading[edit]

  • Lincoff, G.H. (1981). National Audubon Society Field Guide to tướng North American Mushrooms. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-394-51992-0
  • Spahr, D.L. (2009). Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms of New England and Eastern Canada. North Atlantic Books. ISBN 978-1-55643-795-3

External links[edit]

  • Media related to tướng Pleurotus ostreatus at Wikimedia Commons
  • Video footage of Pleurotus ostreatus
  • Mushroom-Collecting.com – Oyster mushrooms