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Bouea macrophylla
Immature Bouea macrophylla in a basket
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Anacardiaceae
Genus: Bouea

B. macrophylla

Binomial name
Bouea macrophylla


Bouea macrophylla, commonly known as gandaria or plum mango or mango plum in English, is a species of flowering plant native vĩ đại Southeast Asia. The tree belongs vĩ đại the family Anacardiaceae which also includes mango and cashew.


A young gandaria fruit in Java. Ripened ones are yellow-orange.
Gandaria leaf in Java

The evergreen tree grows vĩ đại heights of 25 meters. Its leaves are lanceolate vĩ đại elliptic in shape (see: Leaf shape), and range from 13 vĩ đại 45 cm (5 vĩ đại 17 inches) long and from 5 vĩ đại 7 cm (2 vĩ đại 3 inches) wide.

The fruit (resembling a mango) are green in colour and mature vĩ đại an orange/yellow, with the seed being pink. They grow vĩ đại roughly 2 vĩ đại 5 cm (0.7 vĩ đại 1.9 inches) in diameter. The entire fruit, including its skin is edible. The fruit range from sweet vĩ đại sour in flavor similar vĩ đại the Alphonso mango,[1] and have a light smell of turpentine. When ripe, the fruit is soft and has fibrous mango-like seeds that have a noticeable purple color.

Flowering and fruiting times differ for Thailand and Indonesia.

  • Thailand : flowers in November vĩ đại December, and fruit appears from April vĩ đại May.
  • Indonesia : flowers in June vĩ đại November, and fruit appears from March vĩ đại June.


The tree is native vĩ đại Indonesia, and Burma. It is also found in Thailand, Laos, and Malaysia, where it is commercially grown. It can also be found in the northern parts of Pakistan (such as Murree and Nathia Gali).

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Jus gandaria, mango plum juice consumed in Indonesia

Both the leaves and fruit from the tree can be eaten. The leaves can be eaten raw when they are still young, and can be used in salads. While the seed is edible, the endosperm is generally bitter. The fruit is very acidic and has a mango-like flavour. It can be eaten raw, or made into dishes such as pickle, compote, or sambal. Unripened fruit can be used vĩ đại make rojak and asinan.[2] In Ambon, the fruit is made for juice.[3]


The entire tree can be used as an ornamental fruit bearing shade tree due vĩ đại its dense foliage.[4]

Other names[edit]

Ripe Bouea macrophylla or Buah Remia/Setar/Kundang sold in Malaysia

Bouea macrophylla is commonly known in English as the "marian plum", "gandaria", "plum mango" and "mango plum". In Malay, the tree is known as kundang in Malay and its fruit buah kundang. The Malays differentiate between two varieties:

  • Kundang daun kecil ("small-leaf kundang") also known as remia, remnia or rumenia.
  • Kundang daun besar ("large-leaf kundang"), also known as kundang hutan ("jungle kundang) or setar. This usually refers vĩ đại Bouea oppositifolia, and is the origin of the toponym Alor Setar (with alor meaning "small stream").

In Indonesian, it is known as ramania and gandaria. It is also known in Thai as maprang (มะปราง), mayong (มะยง) and mayong chit (มะยงชิด). In Burmese as mayan-thi (မရန်းသီး); and in Vietnamese as thanh trà.

In năm ngoái a major retailer introduced the fruit vĩ đại the British public under the name plango, apparently a portmanteau word for "plum" and "mango".[5] At the time the announcements noted the resemblance of the fruit vĩ đại plums and mangoes, and some of the local press deliberately or naively announced that the fruit was a cross between a plum and a mango,[6] which is not botanically plausible as plums and mangoes are not in the same family.



Bouea macrophylla taxonomy
Species with potential for commercial development
Mansfeld database
AgroForestryTree Database

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